I have never been an orthodox historian, much less at the present time. I approach history with a combination of radical empiricism, existentialism, and incomprehension, and I am completely opposed to the postmodern combination of nihilism, preciosity, and political correctness. I believe that it is possible to enter into the mentality of individuals, whereas I do not believe that it is possible to enter into the mind of the universe. I do not judge. I believe that historians who claim to answer questions that history cannot answer are deluding both themselves and those who listen to them.


  • “A Young Person’s Guide to Global Historiography”
    collection of essays almost completed
  • Louis XIV’s Decision to accept the will of Carlos II
  • L’Histoire surprenante des manuscrits du Testament Politique du Cardinal de Richelieu

See CV

Courses Taught:

  • History 4B
    History of Western Civilization: 1000-1715
  • History 129A
    History of Europe: 1618-1648
  • History 129B
    History of Europe 1648-1685
  • History 129 C
    History of Europe: 1685-1715
  • History 129D
    History of Europe: 1715-1763
  • History 129E
    History of Europe: 1763-1789
  • History 129F
    History of Europe: 1789-1815
  • History 129Q
  • History 202

Online Articles