The Protocols of the Learned
Elders of Zion
Plagiarism at its Best
by Josť Delacruz, November 2003
The content of this page about denial of the Holocaust was created in November 2003 by Jose De La Cruz at UCSB in an introductory lecture course on the Nazi Holocaust (link to course homepage, about the author and bibliography).
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion is a magnet for controversy. This publication helped to spread the disease of anti-Semitism throughout the world. The protocols are a document that purports to represent the ideas of a secret society of Jewish elders and was published by Sergyei Nilus in Russia in 1905. These ideas are the blueprint for conquering the world. History can show the impact that this document has had on the human race. Adolf Hitler was influenced by the protocols and therefore helps explain why Hitler believed that Jews were planning to conquer the world. Consequently, Hitler was responsible for the deaths of millions of Jews throughout Europe. Although at first glance, the protocols seem legitimate and original, it has been proven that they are a mere forgery of a prior document and hold no concrete evidence of an original author. In sum, the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion are a false documentation that has no credibility and its sole purpose is to spread anti-Semitism throughout the world.
A French lawyer named Maurice Joly published an anonymous book in 1864 in which he attacked Napoleon III. This publication is known as "Dialogues in Hell." According to Joly, "I meditated for a year on a book which would show the terrible inroads that the imperial legislation had made on all branches of the administration and the gaps which it had opened by completely wiping out all public liberties" (Bernstein 15). Joly decided to have living persons or the dead converse on contemporary politics. The two characters for his conversation would be Montesquieu and Machiavelli. Machiavelli, like Napoleon III, represents the policies of force and Montesquieu represents the policies of justice. As the conversation between the two characters concludes, Machiavelli's ideas of an able and ruthless dictatorship become less and less supported and therefore weaker in defense. This conversation ends with the twenty-fifth and final dialogue, similar to the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion.
The relationship between "Dialogues in Hell" and the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion is very close. The relationship between the two publications was first made public on August 16, 17, and 18 of 1921 by the London Times. The protocols plagiarized the work of Maurice Joly's "Dialogues in Hell." The phrasing of the Protocols and the Dialogues is almost identical. Parallels can be seen between the dialogue of Joly's work and the protocols. For example, the following table compares passages from both texts:
"Dialogues in Hell:"
"Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion:"
As one can see, the latter is clearly a re-worded version of the first. A more general parallel can be seen between the following excerpts:
By comparing the Protocols and the Dialogues, it becomes evident that there are parallels between the two works. Equally important, Joly's work was published before the Protocols. In fact, professor of criminal law at the University of Basel, Dr. Arthur Baumgarten, confirmed that 176 passages of the Protocols were based on Joly's "Dialogues in Hell" while he served as an expert witness in the Bern trials in 1934-35. [what were these']
NILUSAccording to Nilus, the Protocols were read at secret sessions held during the Zionist Congress at Basel. In "An Appraisal of the Protocols of Zion" by John S. Curtiss, Curtiss points out the fact that the bible is only mentioned once in the Protocols. Apparently, those familiar with Jewish habits of thought would find this suspicious. Equally important, the Old Testament is quoted in Latin. The main language spoken at the Basel Congress was German. Also, the Catholic Church uses the Latin translation of the bible. So why would the Protocols which were supposedly written by Jews contain Latin quotations? A Hebrew translated bible would have been better suited for the Protocols if they had been written by a Jewish author.
Among the ones stated above, the Protocols have other inconsistencies that rise suspicion to its credibility. The French revolution is more evidence of the inconsistency. The third Protocol states, "Remember the French Revolution, to which we gave the name 'Great'; the secrets of its preparation are well known to us, for it was wholly the work of our hands." According to Curtiss, "No intelligent and sincere Jew would have made this claim, for he would know that at the time of the French Revolution the handful of Jews in France did not enjoy political rights and had little or no part in the Revolution." The leaders of the French Revolution were Frenchmen. Consequently, the purpose of this protocol is to stir up anti-Semitism. In addition to the third Protocol, the first Protocol states, "In all corners of the earth the words "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," brought to our ranks, thanks to our blind agents, whose legions who bore our banners with enthusiasm." The phrase "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" did not originate with Jews. On the other hand, Antoine Francois Momoro, a Frenchmen, originated the phrase.
In a time of chaos and anarchy, possessions or properties can become difficult to maintain. According to the Protocols, Jews already own the majority of the worlds gold and property. Nevertheless, the Protocols call for the creation of chaos and confusion in the world. This would allow Jewish leaders to seize power. Chaos would make it difficult for Jews to maintain control of their property and could potentially result in great losses. Therefore, Chaos is a step backwards.
Comparing Joly's "Dialogues in Hell," an attack on Napoleon III, and the "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion," which contains the procedure of a Jewish conspiracy of world domination, shows that the later was paraphrased and plagiarized from "Dialogues in Hell." In addition, the major inconsistencies of the Protocols prove to be confusing and suspicious. This leaves no credibility to the "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion" and proves that it is just a tool to spread the disease of anti-Semitism.