Hitler wearing glasses
Hitler wearing glasses in 1939
(Hitler forbade pictures of himself wearing glasses to be released to the public)

Portrayals of Hitler Project

How has the German dictator been viewed from the 1920s to the present?

reception history project by Harold Marcuse
(professor of German history at UC Santa Barbara)
Harold Marcuse homepage


created August 28, 2005
, updated 7/11/12
(this page is perennially under construction!)


bold links in the body of this page signify primary sources on this site; so far only 2 in 1910s and 1 1930s

This page begins with News at the top, then a Timeline of publications by decade, then thematic sections
Introduction
1910s
1920s
1930s
1940s
1950s
1960s
Early Biography
1970s
1980s
1990s
2000s
 
links

Memoirs
Caricatures
Hitler's Sexuality
Juvenile
 
Time Magazine, 1932-45
Student Papers
Links

Announcements (back to top)


Introduction (back to top)

  • Adolf Hitler cartoon: Calvin calls his babysitter Mein Fuhreris one of the best-known historical figures of our time. Aspects of his life have entered into our popular culture (as the cartoon at right shows), and cult followers still mark his birthday around the world (such as the April 20, 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Colorado. [Note 2/2/06: I had previously written "April 20, 1995 bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building," but a reader pointed out that that occurred on April 19. Subsequent research shows that Oklahoma bomber McVeigh was marking the anniversary of the April 19, 1993 federal raid on the Davidian complex in Waco, Texas, a date not related to Hitler. My thanks to Bruce, who notes that April 19 is the anniversary of the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775).
  • In the most recently published major biography of Hitler, Ian Kershaw's Hubris and Nemesis (1998 and 2000), Kershaw estimates that there are some 120,000 published accounts of Hitler's life. These run the gamut from fictional and blatantly partisan accounts, to serious documentary collections with scholarly assessments of objectivity.
    • Stachura, Peter D., The Weimar Era and Hitler, 1918-1933: A Critical Bibliography (Oxford, Eng: Clio Press Ltd., c1977), 275 p UCSB Library Z2240 .S74
  • This page will present (when it is done), in chronological order, primary sources and secondary portrayals of the life of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945). Decade by decade I plan to list important newspaper, magazine and book publications about him, as well as unpublished primary sources such as letters and institutional records.
  • While the mere chronological listing of sources is of interest, the annotations are intended to help readers assess those sources' role in the construction of particular images of Hitler. As time permits I am trying to include the full texts of the truly primary materials: firsthand accounts and contemporary documents. An important listing of the materials available during the 1940s can be found in the bibliography of the US Army Source Book compiled in 1943 and put on-line by the Nizkor project. Amateur historian Walter S. Frank also has an on-line Hitler bibliography accompanying his on-line book Der Führer: Who is responsible?, although it includes numerous more general works not focusing explicitly on Hitler.
  • See also the Hitler Family Tree that I made for a class in 2008.

Adolf Hitler's Early Biography, 1889-1907 (back to top)

  • 1837: Adolf's father Alois is born to an unmarried 42-year-old woman, Maria Schicklgruber.
  • 1842: Maria Schicklgruber marries Georg Hiedler, who does not adopt her 5-year-old son Alois.
    • In 1876 (see below), 19 years after Georg's death in 1857, Alois himself and Georg's younger brother Nepomuk will swear that Georg was Alois's biological father. We don't know why Alois's presumptive father Georg didn't recognize paternity during his lifetime. Perhaps Nepomuk was actually Alois's father, but then he could have accepted paternity himself. In any case:
  • 1840s: Alois grows up in Nepomuk Hiedler's household. Nepomuk has daughters Johanna, 7 years older than Alois, and Walburga. (Johanna will later be Adolf's aunt "Hanitante.")
    • 1847: Adolf's grandmother Maria Schicklgruber dies at age 52.
      [is this when Alois moves to Nepomuk's household?]
  • 1857: Georg Hiedler dies at age 65.
  • 1860: Nepomuk Hiedler's daughter Johanna's first daughter, Klara, is born--future mother of Adolf. In 1884, at age 24, Klara Pölzl will marry her uncle (or cousin), Alois, who grew up with Klara's mother as his older sister.
  • 1873: Hitler's future father, 36-year-old Alois Schickelgruber, marries 50-year-old Anna Glassl.
  • 1876: Alois, now 39, gets a father, a new last name, and a future inheritance from his nominal uncle: Nepomuk and two witnesses have the parish priest write Nepomuk's brother Georg Hiedler's name in Alois's birth register entry as his biological father. Henceforth Alois takes the last name Hitler (an alternate spelling).
    That same year 16-year-old Klara Pölzl, Alois's second cousin (or niece, if Nepomuk was actually Alois's father), began to work in the household of aging Anna and younger Alois Hitler. In the late 1870s Anna was ill, and Alois was conducting an affair with a maid at the Gasthaus where the Hitlers lived. The maid, Franziska "Fanni" Matzelberger, was a year younger than Alois's personal maid Klara.
  • 1880, Sept: Anna, aware of Alois's affair, obtained a legal separation. Alois now lived openly with Fanni, who immediately released Klara (a potential rival for Alois's affections) from the household. Fanni bore Alois a son, Alois jr., in 1882.
  • 1883: Anna Hitler dies; 6 weeks later Alois (46) and Fanni (22) marry. Their second child, Angela, is born that year. (In 1908 this half-sister of the yet-to-be-born Adolf will bear a daughter, Angela jr ["Geli"], who will become Adolf's heartthrob in Munich in the late 1920s.)
  • 1884: Fanni falls ill with tuberculosis and dies in August at age 23. Klara Pölzl takes care of the children. She becomes pregnant shortly after Fanni's death (Gustav is born in May 1885).
  • 1885, Jan.: the future Adolf Hitler's 47-year-old father Alois marries for the third time. His bride is 24 years old and either his uncle's or his father's granddaughter (depending on which of the brothers Georg or Nepomuk was Alois's biological father), thus either Alois's second cousin or niece.
    • 1885, May: Alois and Klara's first child, Gustav, is born.
  • 1886, Sept: their second child, Ida, is born.
  • 1887: their third child, Otto, is born (in the fall?) and dies shortly thereafter; in December 2 1/2-year-old Gustav dies of diptheria.
  • 1888, Jan.: 15-month-old Ida dies of diptheria; in July 28-year-old Klara conceives again.
  • 1889, April: Alois and Klara's fourth child, Adolf, is born.
  • 1892: the Hitler family moves from Braunau to the German-Austrian border town of Passau
  • 1894, Apr.: Adolf Hitler's father moves to Linz; a 4th child, Edmund, is born (in 1900 he dies of measles at age 6)
  • 1895, Apr.: father Alois retires and the Hitler family moves to Fischlham, near Lambach, near Linz. Adolf starts school in Fischlham on May 1. Alois junior, Adolf's 13-year-old half brother by his father's 2nd wife Fanni, leaves the household.
  • 1896: Alois and Klara's fifth child, Paula, is born. In the 1930s she takes the name Paula Wolf and moves to Germany, where she lives near Munich. She never marries or has children, and dies in 1960, aged 64.
  • 1897: Alois sells the Fischlham farm and moves the family temporarily to Lambach. Adolf took singing lessons at the local monastery.
  • 1898, Nov.: the Hitler family moves to Leonding, a village just outside of Linz.
  • 1900: 11-year-old Adolf's 6-year-old brother Edmund dies of measles. In September Adolf begins the more scientifically-oriented Realschule type of secondary school, not the academic-track Gymnasium. His grades until he drops out in 1905 are consistently mediocre to poor. Adolf relationship to his father, who wants the boy to become a civil servant, deteriorates.
  • 1903: father Alois Hitler dies at age 66.
    Klara Hitler's younger sister Johanna Pölzl ("Hanitante") lives with the Hitler family.
  • 1905: Adolf drops out of the Realschule (high school) without a diploma. He lives comfortably in his own room in an apartment in the Humboldtstrasse in Linz, with his mother, aunt and sister to take care of the household. He reads, draws, paints, attends opera and theater, takes piano lessons for 4 months at the end of 1906. In the fall of 1905 Adolf meets August "Gustl" Kubizek by chance at a Wagner opera in Linz. They become fast friends.
  • 1907, Jan.: Adolf's mother is operated on for breast cancer. In early Sept. Adolf, with a 924 crown loan (about the annual earnings of a teacher) from his aunt Johanna, goes to Vienna to take the entrance examination at the Academy of Fine Arts. (The loan was not repaid before Joanna died in 1911.) Adolf's drawings place him among the 113 (of 146) admitted to the drawing exam itself, but his examiners (none of them Jewish) think what he draws there might qualify him as an architect, but not as a painter. He is not among the 28 aspiring artists admitted that year. Adolf returns to Linz, where in December his 47-year-old mother dies of breast cancer. He is disconsolate, having had a very close relationship to her.
    Adolf and Paula both receive a 25 crown/month orphan's pension, as well as about 1000 crowns each inheritance from their mother. (Only when they turn 24 will they receive their father's civil service pension.) Eleven-year-old Paula goes to live with their 24-year-old, just-pregnant half sister Angela and her husband.
  • 1908, February: Adolf returns to Vienna, where he lives in the room near the Westbahnhof that he had rented the previous fall. Having persuaded Kubizek's parents to let their son pursue music studies in Vienna, Adolf writes urgent postcards to Gustl, begging him to come to Vienna soon.
  • ...
  • 1918, October 15: Hitler was admitted to a field hospital after being temporarily blinded by a poison gas attack. See John Singer Sargent's 1918 painting "Gassed" for an illustration of what soldiers did in the aftermath of such attacks.
  • 1919
    • Sept. 19: Hitler's first written statement on Jews, in a Sept. 19, 1919 letter he wrote for the army propaganda division he was working for.
    • Oct. 16: Hitler was the second speaker (after Erich Kühn) at a meeting of the DAP. This was the first meeting announced by an ad in the Völkischer Beobachter; 111 attended [Auerbach 1977, 11]. Auerbach sees this as Hitler's first success connecting with the public, and as the date at which he decided to get into politics, as a keynote speaker (Werberedner).
  • 1920
    • Spring: Hitler accompanies Mayr to meetings of the Eiserne Faust, where he meets Ernst Röhm.
    • August 13: Hitler gives a "fundamental" speech about antisemitism in the Hofbräuhaus. See: Reginald H. Phelps, "Hitlers 'grundlegende' Rede über den Antisemitismus," VfZ 16 (1968), 390-420.
  • 1921
    • January 1-end of May: Hitler writes page 1 commentaries in the Völkischer Beobachter [Auerbach 1977, 25]
    • February 3: 6000 people attend the first real mass rally of the NSDAP in the Zirkus Krone [Deuerlein, Hitler Putsch, 37; Toland, 109]
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Sources on Hitler's childhood, 1890s-1909 (back to top)

  • Devrient, Paul, 1890-1973 (wiki.de page). Mein Schüler Hitler: Das Tagebuch seines Lehrers Paul Devrient / bearb. u. hrsg. von Werner Maser. 1975 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 D478 1975. PD was AH's voice coach in 1932.
  • Kubizek, Jugendfreund
    • Kubizek, August. Adolf Hitler, 1966 Main Library DD247.H5 K8 1966
    • Kubizek, August. Young Hitler, the story of our friendship; 1954 Main Library DD247.H5 K813 1954 (new edition 1990s w/ intro by Kershaw)
  • Smith, Bradley F. Adolf Hitler; his family, childhood, and youth, (Hoover Institution publication.) 1967 Book Main Library DD247.H5 S48 [note: Bradley *F.* is not the Holocaust denier Bradley Smith, a leading light of the denier institution "Institute for Historical Review]
  • Hitler's 1925 autobiography Mein Kampf (full text on mondopolitico.com, an "objectivist" site), esp. chapters 1, 2
  • Hitler's younger sister Paula Wolf's testimony
  • Hitler in Vienna
    • Hamann, Brigitte. Hitlers Wien : Lehrjahre eines Diktators (1996) Book Main Library DD247.H5 H2819 1996
    • Hamann, Brigitte. Hitler’s Vienna : a dictator’s apprenticeship. 1999 Book Main Library DD247.H5 H281913 1999
  • Hitler as an artist
    • Billy F. Price. (ed), Adolf Hitler als Maler und Zeichner: Ein Werkkatalog der Ölgemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen und Architekturskizzen (Zug/Schweiz : Gallant Verlag, c1983), 252 p. : chiefly ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm. UCSB Arts Library N6888.H58 A4 1983 Bibliography: p. 252.

Sources on Hitler's Life in the 1910s (back to top)

  • "I was Hitler's Buddy," by Reinhold Hanisch, who worked with Hitler in Vienna, 1913 (note: if the page scans are hard to read, go to the "OCR text" at the bottom). [see also Machtan discussion of Hanisch vs. Neumann, chap 1, n. 105]
  • The Great War (World War I) Shortly after he arrived at the French front in October 1914, 3000 of the 3600 men in Hitler's regiment were slaughtered. Hitler described this experience in a Dec. 3, 1914 letter to his landlord in Munich (Popp), and in an 11-page January 22, 1915 letter to Ernst Hepp, an official in Munich who had bought some of his paintings and befriended him.
    • Brandmayer, Balthasar. Mit Hitler Meldegänger 1914-18: Erlebt und erzählt von Balthasar Brandmayer ; mitgeteilt von Heinz Bayer. 1932 Book Main Library DD247.H5 B7 1932
  • "I was Hitler's Boss," a 1941 article by Karl Mayr, the German Army supervisor who assigned Hitler to attend the German Workers' Party meeting in the summer of 1919.
    • This period of Hitler's life was discussed by historian Hellmuth Auerbach in his 1977 article in the VfZ, "Hitlers politische Lehrjahre und die Münchener Gesellschaft 1919-1923," pp. 1-45 in this VfZ pdf. P. 17, note 66.
  • Hitler's first written statement on Jews, in a Sept. 19, 1919 letter he wrote for the army propaganda division he was working for. Full text on hitler.org

1920s (back to top)

  • Jackel/Kuhn sources. Translate some key ones?
    • Maser, Werner, 1922- Hitler’s letters and notes; translated from the German by Arnold Pomerans. 1974 Book Main Library DD247.H5 M284513 1974b
    • Maser, Werner, Hitlers Briefe und Notizen; sein Weltbild in handschriftlichen Dokumenten. 1973 Book Main Library DD247.H5 M2845
  • 1923: Putsch. source: Hitler trial transcript--his takeover speeches [JK 1052ff]
    • Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945, defendant. The Hitler trial before the People’s Court in Munich / translation by H. Francis Freniere, Lucie Karcic, Philip Fandek ; int 1976 Book Main Library DD247.H5 A7413
    • Gordon, Harold J. Hitler and the Beer Hall Putsch. 1972 Book Main Library DD247.H5 G637
    • Hanser, Richard. Putsch! How Hitler made revolution. 1970 UCSB Library DD247.H5 H323
    • Deuerlein, Ernst, 1918-1971. Der Hitler-Putsch: Bayerische Dokumente zum 8./9. November 1923 / Eingeleitet und herausgegeben von Ernst Deuerlein. (Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte ;) (Bd. 9.) 1962 Book Main Library DD801.B42 D4
    • Hofmann, Hanns Hubert, 1922- Der Hitlerputsch : Krisenjahre deutscher Geschichte, 1920-1924 1961 Book SRLF DD249 .H6
  • Jablonsky, David. The Nazi Party in Dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit, 1923-1925 (1989) Southern Regional Library DD240 .J3 1988
  • Franz-Willing, Georg, 1915- Putsch und Verbotszeit der Hitlerbewegung : November 1923-Februar 1925. 1977 Book Main Library DD256.5 .F7333
    • Franz-Willing, Georg, 1915- Krisenjahr der Hitlerbewegung: 1923. 1975 Book Main Library DD247.H5 F72
  • Reichstag election results: Marxists.org tables year by year; overview table on Andreas Gonschior's Weimar site: NSDAP 6% in May 1924, 3% in December 1924; 2.6% in May 1928, ...
  • Mein Kampf
    • Maser, Werner, 1922- Hitlers Mein Kampf. Entstehung, Aufbau, Stil Änderungen, Quellen, Quellenwert, kommentierte Auszüge. 1966 Book Main Library DD247.H5 A31
      • Maser, Werner, 1922- Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf: Geschichte, Auszüge, Kommentare . 1981 Book Main Library DD247.H5 A3548 1981
    • Barnes, James J. Hitler’s Mein Kampf in Britain and America: A Publishing History, 1930-39. 1980 Book Main Library DD247.H5 A3426
    • Van Loon, Hendrik Willem, 1882-1944. Our Battle, by Hendrik Willem Van Loon; being one man’s answer to My battle, by Adolf Hitler. 1938 Book Main Library DD247.H5 A35
    • Harand, Irene. "Sein Kampf": Antwort an Hitler. 1936 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 A3497 1936
    • Lorimer, Emily Overend, 1881- What Hitler Wants, 1939 Book Main Library DD247.H5 L6
    • Lange, Karl, 1893- Hitlers unbeachtete Maximen; "Mein Kampf" und die Öffentlichkeit. 1968 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 L32
    • Staudinger, Hans, 1889-1980. The Inner Nazi: A Critical Analysis of Mein Kampf; edited with an introduction and a biographical afterword 1981 Book Main Library DD247.H5 A3583
  • Ernst Hanfstaengl, Adolf Hitler
    • Conradi, PeterConradi, Hitler's Piano Player. Hitler’s Piano Player: The Rise and Fall of Ernst Hanfstaengl, Confidant of Hitler, Ally of FDR (2004) UCSB Main Library DD247.H254 C66 2004 ($10 at amazon)
    • Hanfstaengl, Ernst, 1887-1975. Hitler: The Missing Years; introduction by John Toland ; afterword by Egon Hanfstaengl. 1994 UCSB Library DD247.H5 H312 1994
    • Hanfstaengl, Ernst, 1887-1975. 15 Jahre mit Hitler: Zwischen Weissem und Braunem Haus 1980 UCSB Library DD247.H5 H316 1980
    • Hanfstaengl, Ernst, 1887-1975. Unheard witness. 1957 Book Main Library DD247.H5 H314
    • Hanfstaengl, Ernst, 1887-1975. Hitler: The Missing Years. [Edited by Brian Connell] 1957 Book Main Library DD247.H5 H314 1957
  • Strasser, Otto. Hitler and I, 1940 Book Main Library DD247.S8 A3 1940
  • Dietrich, Otto, 1897-1952. Mit Hitler in die Macht:  Persönliche Erlebnisse mit meinem F ührer. 1938 Book Special Collections DD247.H5 D5 1938
  • 1927 or 1928: brings Geli to Munich [Hayman 1997, 105 vs. Kershaw 1998, 283+351-355]
    • Sigmund, Anna Maria. Des Führers bester Freund: Adolf Hitler, seine Nichte Geli Raubal und der "Ehrenarier" Emil Maurice, eine Dreiecksbeziehung 2003 UCSB Library DD247.H5 S523 2003
  • 1929-32: Aufzeichnungen Otto Wageners [H.A. Turner (ed.), Hitler aus naechster Naehe (1978)]
  • Miskolczy, Ambrus. Hitler’s Library [English translation by Ridey Szilvia and Michael Webb]. 2003 UCSB Library DD247.H5 M52513 2003
  • Ryback, Timothy,

1930s (back to top)

  • General about early 1930s
    • Thyssen, Fritz (1873-1951), I paid Hitler, 1941 Book Main Library DD253 .T5
  • 1931
    • Calic, Edouard. Unmasked: two confidential interviews with Hitler in 1931 [transcript by Richard Breiting, edited by] Édouard Calic; 1971 Book Main Library DD247.H5 C3213
    • Breiting, Richard, 1882-1937. Ohne Maske: Hitler-Breiting Geheimgespräche, 1931. 1968 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 C32
  • 1933
    • Bade, Wilfrid, 1906- Deutschland erwacht; Werden, Kampf und Sieg der NSDAP. Die Auswahl und Künstlerische durcharbeitung der Lichtbilder übern 1933 Book Special Collections DD253 .B24
  • 1934, Röhm Putsch
    • François, Jean, fl. 1938-1946. L’affaire Röhm-Hitler. 1939 Book Main Library DD247.R56 F7 1939
    • Ludecke, Kurt Georg Wilhelm, 1890- I knew Hitler; the story of a Nazi who escaped the blood purge. 1938 Book Special Collections DD247.H5 L8 1938; Main Library DD247.H5 L8 1938
    • Göring, Hermann, 1893-1946. Aufbau einer Nation. 1934 Book Special Collections DD240 .G62 1934
    • Steed, Henry Wickham, 1871-1956. Hitler; whence and whither? 1934 Book Main Library DD247.H5 S73
  • 1935
    • Ingrim, Robert. Hitlers glücklichster Tag: London, am 18. Juni 1935. 1962 Book Main Library DD256.5 .I45
  • 1936
    • Heiden, Konrad, 1901-1966. Adolf Hitler, eine biographie. 1936 Book Main Library DD247.H5 H33
    • Olden, Rudolf, 1885-1940. Hitler, the pawn, 1936 Book Main Library DD247.H5 O4
    • Rubinstein, Alexander, 1881- Adolf Hitler : Schüler der "Weisen von Zion" / Alexander Stein [i. e. Alexander Rubinstein] 1936 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 R8
    • Seehofer, Herbert. Mit dem Führer unterwegs! Kleine stimmungsbilder einer grossen reise, 1936 Book Main Library DD247.H5 S4
    • Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1885-1957. Mussolini erlebt Deutschland; ein Bildbuch. Mit einem Geleitwort von Otto Dietrich. 1937 Book Special Collections DG575.M8 H57
    • Adolf Hitler, Bilder aus dem Leben des Führers / [Auswahl und künstlerische Bearbeitung der Bilder ...: Heinrich Hoffmann] 1936 Book Special Collections DD247.H5 A7575 1936
      • Hitler close-up / Henry Picker and Heinrich Hoffmann ; compiled by Jochen von Lang ; translated from the German by Nicholas 1973 Book Special Collections DD247.H5 A72613 197
  • 1937
  • 1938
    • Heinz, Heinz A. Germany’s Hitler. 1938 Book Main Library DD247.H5 H416
    • Luedecke, K, I Knew Hitler (London: Jarrolds, 1938).
  • 1939
    • Jan. 1939 Time Magazine "Man of the Year 1938" article. Four magazine pages. Click on the thumbnails to see the original magazine pages.
    • Germany. Reichskanzler (1933-1945: Hitler) Exchange of communications between the president of the United States and the chancellor of the German Reich, April 1939. 1939 Book Special Collections DD247.H5 A5713 1939
    • Reynold, H. F. Adolph Hitler : der letzte "grosse" Antisemit. 1939 Book Special Collections DS135.G33 R49 1939
    • Petersen, Arnold, 1885-1976. The Nazi beast roars. 1939 Book Southern Regional Library DD253 .P4
    • Rauschning, Hermann, Hitler Speaks (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1939).
      • Hitler m’a dit; confidences du führer sur son plan de conquête du monde. 1939 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 R3
    • Roberts, Stephen Henry, Sir, 1901- The house that Hitler built, by Stephen H. Roberts. 1939 Book Southern Regional Library DD253 .R6 1939
    • Struye, Paul, 1896- Hitler. 1939 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 S8
    • Bouhler, Philipp, 1899-1945. Adolf Hitler, a short sketch of his life, by Philipp Bouhler (Terramare publications ;) (no. 1.) 1938 Book Special Collections DD247.H5 B65

1940s (back to top)

  • 1940
    • Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1885-1957. Mit Hitler in Polen. Geleitwort: Generaloberst Keitel. 1940 Book Special Collections D802.P6 H6 1940
  • 1942
    • Krueger, Kurt. Inside Hitler, from the German of Kurt Krueger, M. D. Prelude for the second printing by Upton Sinclair, introd. by Otto Strasser 1942 UCSB Main Library DD247.H5 K7 1942
      • Larry Hoefling of McHuston booksellers contributed the following information in October 2011:
        "Krueger" is in all likelihood "a pseudonym for a somewhat notorious writer named Samuel Roth. One of the publishers of the title is Biltmore, which published other works by Roth under pen names. There are several indicators that suggest strongly that the book is nothing more than a work of fiction by Roth, who had a reputation as a publishing pirate and pseudononymous correspondent and author."
    • N. Baynes (trans. and ed.), The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, 1922-1939, vol. 1 (London: Oxford U.niv. Press, 1942).
  • 1945 Last days
    • Boldt, Gerhard, 1918- Die letzten Tage der Reichskanzlei; bearbeitet von Ernst A. Hepp. 1947, 1948 Book Special Collections D811 .B63 1948; also SRLF
    • Trevor-Roper, H. R. (Hugh Redwald), 1914- The Last Days of Hitler (1947) Main Library DD247.H5 T7 1947
    • Kellerhoff, Sven Felix, 1971- Mythos Führerbunker : Hitlers letzter Unterschlupf (2003) Main Library DD247.H5 .K39 2003
    • Galante, Pierre. Voices from the bunker / Pierre Galante & Eugene Silianoff; translated from the French by Jan Dalley. 1989 Book Main Library DD247.H5 G25 1989
      • Last witnesses in the bunker / [edited by] Pierre Galante & Eugène Silianoff ; translated from the French by Jan Dalley. 1989 Book Main Library DD247.H5 V65 1989b
    • Fest, Joachim C., 1926- Der Untergang: Hitler und das Ende des Dritten Reiches: Eine historische Skizze (2002) UCSB Main Library DD247.H5 U48 2002
      • Fest, Joachim C., 1926- Inside Hitler’s Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich; translated from the German by Margot Bettauer (2004) UCSB Main Library DD247.H5 U4813 2004
        [this book was the basis for the 2005 German film Untergang = Downfall]
  • 1945 death
    • Bezymenskii, L. (Lev), 1920- The Death of Adolf Hitler: Unknown Documents from Soviet Archives (1968). Main Library DD247.H5 B433
    • 1939 anonymous: The Strange Death of Adolf Hitler (1939) UCSB Special Collections DD247.H5 S798 1939
    • McKale, Donald M., 1943- Hitler, The Survival Myth (1981) UCSB Main Library DD247.H5 M18
    • Heinz Linge, With Hitler to the End: The Memoir of Hitler's Valet (Skyhorse Publishing, 2009). ($15 & searchable on amazon)
    • Erich Kempka, I Was Hitler's Chauffeur: The Memoir of Erich Kempka (Frontline Books, 2010).  ($20 not searchable on amazon)
    • Henrik Eberle, Matthias Uhl, eds. The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin from the Interrogations of Hitler's Personal Aides (New York: Public Affairs, 2005),. xxx + 370. (July 2006 H-German review; amazon.com)

1950s (back to top)

  • Bullock bio

1960s (back to top)


1970s (back to top)

  • Fest bio
  • Toland bio
  • Binion, Rudolph, 1927- Hitler among the Germans 1976 UCSB Library DD247.H5 B54
  • Aschaffenburger Gespräche (1978) Hitler heute : Gespräche über e. dt. Trauma / Aschaffenburger Gespräche 1978 ; hrsg. u. bearb. von Guido Knopp. 1979 Conference Main Library DD247.H5 A92 1978

1980s (back to top)

  • 1989
    • Zitelmann, Rainer. Adolf Hitler: eine politische Biographie (Persönlichkeit und Geschichte, vol.. 21/22) 1989 Book Main Library DD247.H5 Z567 1989

1990s (back to top)


2000s (back to top)

  • 2002
    • Boudinot, Ryan, "The Littlest Hitler," in: Mississippi Review (Feb. 2002); reprinted in: Dave Eggers (ed.), The Best American Nonrequired Reading 2003 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003), 24-32 [$5 on amazon]; and in: Ryan Boudinot, The Littlest Hitler--Stories (counterpoint Press, 2006) [$13 & searchable on amazon page: "The title story is about Davy, a middle-schooler whose father lets him go to a Halloween party dressed as Hitler. His classmate Lysette shows up as Anne Frank. Ouch. For most writers, that would be enough; not for Boudinot. The ending will bring you to your knees."].
      A kind of coming of age story in which the main character hides his Hitlerian shame as Frankenstein, gets close to the class babe, and doesn't patronize his deprived Jewish neighbors. scan of p. 1f.

Personal Memoirs (back to top)

  • Baur, Hans, 1897- Ich flog Mächtige der Erde. 1962 Book Special Collections DD247.H5 B28 1962
    • Sweeting, C. G. Hitler’s personal pilot : the life and times of Hans Baur. 2000 Book Main Library DD247.H5 S895 2000
  • Braun, Eva: Hewlett, Douglas Lawrence. Hitler et les femmes. Le journal intime d’Eva Braun ... 1948 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 H48
    • Gold, Alison Leslie, The devil’s mistress: the diary of Eva Braun, 1997. UCSB Library PS3557.O3267 D48 1997
  • Dollmann, Eugen. The interpreter: memoirs, translated from the German by J. Maxwell Brownjohn. 1967 Book Main Library DD256.5 .D643
  • Hitler, Bridget. The memoirs of Bridget Hitler / edited by Michael Unger. 1979 Book Main Library DD247.H52 A3
  • Junge, Gertraud. Bis zur letzten Stunde : Hitlers Sekretärin erzählt ihr Leben / Traudl Junge ; unter Mitarbeit von Melissa Müller. 2002 Book Main Library DD247.J86 A3 2002
  • Krueger, Kurt. I was Hitler’s doctor. From the German of Kurt Krueger, foreword by Upton Sinclair, introduction by Otto Strasser, preface 1943 UCSB Special Collections DD247.H5 K732 1943
    • Larry Hoefling of McHuston booksellers contributed the following information in October 2011:
      "Krueger" is in all likelihood "a pseudonym for a somewhat notorious writer named Samuel Roth. One of the publishers of the title is Biltmore, which published other works by Roth under pen names. There are several indicators that suggest strongly that the book is nothing more than a work of fiction by Roth, who had a reputation as a publishing pirate and pseudononymous correspondent and author."
  • Rauschning, Hermann, 1887- Hitler m’a dit; confidences du führer sur son plan de conquête du monde. 1939 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 R3
  • Stierlin, Helm. Adolf Hitler : a family perspective / by Helm Stierlin. 1976 Book Main Library DD247.H5 S77613
  • Strasser, Otto. Hitler and I, 1940 Book Main Library DD247.S8 A3 1940
  • Wolf, Paula (Hitler's younger sister) testimony: July 12, 1945 US interrogation; June 5, 1946 interview; 1959 BBC
  • Ziegler, Hans Severus, 1893- Adolf Hitler, aus dem Erleben dargestellt. 1964 Book Southern Regional Library DD256.5 .Z48 1964

Caricatures, Satire, Movies (back to top)

  • Klein, A. M. (Abraham Moses), 1909-1972, The Hitleriad  (New YorkL New directions [1944] ), 30, [1] p. 23 cm. UCSB Library DD247.H5 K55; Subject Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945 -- Cartoons, satire, etc.
  • Minear, Richard H. Dr. Seuss goes to war : the World War II editorial cartoons of Theodor Seuss Geisel / Richard H. Minear. 1999 Book Main Library D745.2 .M56 1999
  • Zeman, Z. A. B. (Zbynek A. B.), 1928- Heckling Hitler : caricatures of the Third Reich / Zbynek Zeman. 1984 Book Main Library DD247.H5 Z45 1984
  • Mitchell, Charles P., 1949-, The Hitler filmography : worldwide feature film and television miniseries portrayals, 1940 through 2000 (Jefferson, NC : McFarland & Co., 2002), 293 p. UCSB Library PN1995.9.H514 M58 2002
  • Adolf Hitler: Gesichter eines Diktators. 1968 Book Main Library DD247.H5 A75
  • Bracher, Karl Dietrich, 1922- Adolf Hitler. 1964 Book Southern Regional Library DD247.H5 B68

Hitler's Sexuality, Relations with Women (back to top)

  • Hayman, Ronald, 1932- Hitler & Geli / Ronald Hayman. 1998 Book Main Library DD247.H5 H3257 1997
  • Knopp, Guido, 1948- Hitlers Frauen und Marlene; in Zusammenarbeit mit Alexander Berkel ... [et al.] ; Dokumentation, Alexander Be 2001 Book Main Library DD247.H5 K578 2001
    • Knopp, Guido, 1948- Hitler’s women / Guido Knopp ; translated by Angus McGeoch. 2003 Book Women’s Studies DD247.H5 K57813 2003
  • Müller, Michael Berthold, 1960- Das Männerbild Adolf Hitlers / Michael Berthold Müller. 1999 Book Main Library DD247.H5 M782 1999
  • Machtan, Lothar. Hitlers Geheimnis : das Doppelleben eines Diktators / Lothar Machtan. 2001 Book Main Library DD247.H5 M235 2001
    • Machtan, Lothar. The hidden Hitler / Lothar Machtan ; translated by John Brownjohn ; notes translation by Susanne Ehlert. 2001 Book Main Library DD247.H5 M235 2001

Juvenile Literature (back to top)

  • Rice, Earle, The Third Reich : demise of the Nazi dream (San Diego, CA : Lucent Books, c2000), 112 p. UCSB Curriculum Lab DD256.5 .R472 2000


Time Magazine's Hitler, in "the 100 most important leaders and revolutionaries of the 20th century"

1931 Time cover of Hitler

1933 Time cover of Hitler 1936 Time cover of Hitler

Time, Dec. 21, 1931

Three against Hitler

Fighting every inch of the way, three men stood out against the advance of Fascism in Germany last week: pale, bespectacled Chancellor Heinrich Bruning; white-haired Paul von Hindenburg; and their faithful lieutenant, Minister of the Interior and of War Wilhelm Groener. Each morning foreign correspondents in Berlin expected the Bruning Government to fall and Fascist Adolf Hitler, who only fortnight ago pounded a platform and shouted in his best Mussolini manner " Right goes hand in hand with Might!" , to seize the Government. Municipal elections were held in Stuttgart....

Time, Mar. 13, 1933

"National Revolution"

Banned in Berlin on election day this week was the flag of Germany: black, red & gold. When a Prussian Deputy tried to fly his country's flag. Berlin police made him take it down. The Deputy's country—the German Republic—was dying if not dead. Meanwhile out of the ballot box another Germany was being reborn. Its flag— black, white & red—the onetime Imperial Hohenzollern colors, flew in every street, floated majestically from Government buildings and was flaunted everywhere by shouting, cheering throngs. Goosestepping as smartly as when they...

Time, Apr. 13, 1936

Plan v. Plan v. Plan

Adolf Hitler was reasonably happy last week. Behind him was a Germany so united on paper as to leave no outside doubt that he was its one & only master. Before him was a ring of sovereign powers who could not make up their common mind what to do about this fuzzy-lipped little man who had just spat in their respective faces. Fortnight ago Adolf Hitler had collected 44,952,937 fresh pieces of paper purporting to show that 99% of German voters approve his three great steps toward FREEDOM AND PEACE. That these three steps had rashly violated Germany's...

1939 Time cover of Hitler

1941 Time cover of Hitler 1945 Time cover of Hitler

Time, Jan. 2, 1939

Man of the Year

Greatest single news event of 1938 took place on September 29, when four statesmen met at the Führerhaus, in Munich, to redraw the map of Europe. The three visiting statesmen at that historic conference were Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of Great Britain, Premier Edouard Daladier of France, and Dictator Benito Mussolini of Italy. But by all odds the dominating figure at Munich was the German host, Adolf Hitler. Führer of the German people, Commander-in-Chief of the German Army, Navy & Air Force, Chancellor of the Third Reich, Herr Hitler reaped on that day at Munich...

Time, Apr. 14, 1941

A Dictator's Hour

The crucial spring of his career came last week to Adolf Hitler. He could see it in sheltered, sun-struck places around the Berghof where lilies of the valley, violets, Alpine roses, blue gentians, and wild azaleas bloomed, and in the green showing through the white on the Untersberg's slopes across the way. But he could feel it even more strongly in his bones: spring, when armies march. If the campaigns Hitler launches this spring are as successful as those he launched a year ago, he will almost indisputably soon be master of at least half the world. If they fail, the least that...

Time, May 7, 1945

The Betrayer

Fate knocked at the door last week for Europe's two fascist dictators. Mussolini, shot in the back and through the head by his partisan executioners, lay dead in Milan (see below). Adolf Hitler had been buried, dead or alive, in the rubble of his collapsing Third Reich. Whether or not he had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage (as reported from Stockholm), or had "fallen in his command post at the Reich chancellery" (as reported by the Hamburg radio, which said that he had been succeeded as Führer by Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz), or was a prisoner of Gestapo Chief...

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