|UCSB Hist 4C, Spring 2000||Prof. Marcuse
|Western Civilization, 1715-present||June 9, 2000
FINAL EXAM ID SHEET
NOTE: The short definitions given below are taken from the course
textbook website. For most, reproducing this information will
get you a "C" on the exam. In order to raise that grade,
you must figure out why these terms are significant in the context
of this course. Ask yourself:
- Would history have taken a different course without this event
or person? Why?? Or:
- Why is this term an example of some important principle that
played a role in the later course of history?
- Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) (p. 926, lecture 18): succeeded
Lenin in the dictatorship of the Soviet Union. Came to power through
a series of purges to eliminate possible challengers. Replaced
NEP with the First Five-Year Plan which stressed industrial over
agricultural production. The agricultural component of the First
Five-Year Plan was collectivization whereby millions of peasants
moved from traditional lands to collective farms. The First
Five-Year Plan aimed to transform the Soviet Union from a predominantly
agricultural country into a predominantly industrial one. It emphasized
heavy industry at the expense of consumer goods.
- fascism (p. 928; also lecture 15!): an authoritarian
political movement that sought to subordinate individuals to the
service of the state (as represented by its leader). (also:
- Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) (p. 928, 946) dictator of
the Nazi Party in Germany. After Germany's defeat in World War
I he became chair of the nationalist Socialist German Workers'
Party. After 1929, the Nazi party attracted many supporters and
using economic and political discontent (from what?), Hitler
promised a new order that would lead Germany to greatness. Stressing
radical doctrines, particularly anti-Semitism and anti-communism,
Hitler was finally given the position of Chancellor of Germany.
In 1939, he disregarded the appeasement policy signed at Munich
and led Germany into war by invading Poland. Appeasement
was a policy formulated at the Munich Conference in 1938, under
which they would concede the lands already occupied by Nazi Germany
if Hitler would promise to cease his expansion of territorial
- Auschwitz (lecture 17)
- United Nations (UN) (p. 968): a supra-national organization
dedicated to keeping world peace and security and promoting friendly
relations among the world's nations. It offered an alternative
for global reconstruction that was independent of the Cold War.
(What was its predecessor?)
- Truman Doctrine (p. 967, lecture 18): On March 12,
1947, in a speech given by Truman, the new ground rules for the
Cold War were laid out. Defining the U. S. perception of a world
divided between free and enslaved people, Truman argued that the
United States had a moral responsibility to intervene and "contain"
the spread of communism. This policy of "containment"
would serve as the foundation of American foreign policy for the
next five decades.
See also: containment strategy (p. 976): an American policy aimed
at denying the Soviet Union expansion of its influence throughout
- Marshall Plan (1948) (p. 967): Named after U.S. secretary
of state George C. Marshall, this policy proposed to rebuild European
economies through cooperation and capitalism, forestalling communist
or Soviet influence in the devastated nations of Europe.
- Warsaw Pact (p. 968) When NATO admitted West Germany
and allowed it to rearm in 1955, the Soviets formed the Warsaw
Pact as a countermeasure. It was a military alliance of seven
communist European nations, and matched the collective defense
policies of NATO.
See also: Warsaw Treaty Organization (p.980) Post-WWII bloc intended
to serve as a military defense against the expansion of American
influence especially with the rearming of West Germany.
- Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) (p. 973, 976, 1013, lecture
18): Stalin's successor in the Soviet Union. Khrushchev developed
a version of communism which omitted the terror and intimidation
that had characterized the Stalin period. He called for a more
economically productive type of communism that aimed for balanced
growth with the controlled production of material goods. Began
an active period of de-Stalinization, but also confronted the
U.S. in the Cuban missile crisis.
- Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) ( p. 933): The great
spiritual and political leader of twentieth century India. He
was raised in an upper class Hindu household; he studied law in
London and went to South Africa where he embraced a moral philosophy
of tolerance and nonviolence and developed the technique of passive
resistance. Transformed the Indian National Congress into an effective
instrument of Indian nationalism.
- Fidel Castro Ruz (1926-) (p. 982): revolutionary communist
who led the movement to overthrow Batista in Cuba. After seizing
power he aligned Cuba with the Soviet Union.
- Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972) (p. 989, 1003): led Ghana
- Jan Palach (lecture 19):
See also Alexander Dubcek (p. 1014): Czechoslovakian leader who
was deposed by the Soviets after launching "socialism with
a human face" during the "Prague Spring" in 1968.
- Brezhnev doctrine (p. 1014): Soviet Doctrine of Limited
Sovereignty which reserved the right to invade socialist countries
threatened by internal or external elements.
- Détente (p. 1015): reduction in tensions between
the Soviet Union and United States during the 1960's.
- Apartheid (p. 1022): separateness," South African
system implemented by the Afrikaner National Party to control
the native black population.
- Mobutu Sese Seko (p. 1023): U.S.-supported dictator
who, along with his "vampire elite," plundered Zaire
(later renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo).
- Imre Nagy (p. 1013): Hungarian leader who was deposed
and executed after announcing Hungary's withdrawal from the Warsaw
- Mikhail Gorbachev (1931-) (pp. 1043-46, lecture 19):
Soviet leader, launched economic reforms in the late 1980s that
unleashed anti-Communism forces from within and without, eventually
led to the collapse of the Soviet Union and disappearance of the
Soviet empire in Europe. (See also: perestroika, glasnost)
- velvet revolution (p. 1044): Refers to non-violent
transfer of power in Czechoslovakia formerly ruled by hard-line
communism; communist leadership (who?) simply stood by
and watched events take their course.
- Pan-American Culture (p. 1050); see also Global Barbie
- Age of Access (p. 1051):
- "Warning to Humanity" (p. 1059): Environmental
document of 1992 signed by 1500 scientists, including 99 Nobel
laureates and representatives from a dozen of the world's most