L 6: Kristallnacht: Causes & Consequences
by Prof. H. Marcuse, UCSB, Oct. 9, 2003
What does this event tell us about the nature of the Nazi regime and the origins
of the Holocaust?
- Q1 from text & Friedlander
- Events pre-1938; 1938, Oct & Nov
- Causes of Kristallnacht: diplomacy & persecution, opportunism, greed
Midterm Question 1
- What event precipitated the antisemitic rioting of 9-10 November 1938?
Why did that person do what he did?
- According to Friedlander in the essay you read, which Nazi leader was most
important in determining the decrees and policies implemented after November
- Grunspan assassinated vom Rath
his family was expelled to Poland
- Hitler, Goering (not Goebbels)
A personal story (my grandfather's father): Carl
Marcuse (1864-1948), emigrated Berlin->London March 1939
Carl Marcuse's passport was issued on Feb. 25, 1939.
As per the law passed on Oct. 5, 1938, it was stamped with a red "J."
As per a law passed Aug. 17, 1938, all Jewish men had to
have "Israel" in their name, effective Jan. 1, 1939. Carl included
it in his passport signature.
Carl's passport expired on 25 Feb. 1940. It was renewed by
the Swiss legation in London until 25. Aug. 1940 and 25. Feb. 1941, then
again until 25 Aug. 1941.
Carl was granted a visa to the UK on Feb. 27, 1939. On
Mar. 14 he left from Berlin Tegel airport, arriving the same day at Croydon.
On March 22 he registered at the Bow St. police station in London.
On Sept. 5, 1940 he received British quota number 6074. On
Sept. 28 he received an exit permit for one journey to the U.S. before Dec.
On March 13, 1939, 12 days after his 75th birthday, two
weeks after he received his passport and UK visa, and the day before he
left for London, Carl was allowed to convert only 10 Reichsmarks to British
currency for the trip. (detail below)
|Carl Marcuse obtained his driver's license (at right) on 4 November 1927
at age 63. Beginning Dec. 3, 1938 Jews' drivers's licenses became invalid
and were confiscated. He must have been able to smuggle his to London.
Carl's army reserve book gives his religion as "Mosaisch"
He was released from the "2nd guard regiment on foot"
on 1 Oct. 1886.
On Sept. 30, 1886 he was certified qualified for the reserve
in shooting class II.
- Meaning of term: "night of broken glass," actually Reichskristallnacht
compare Reichsmarschall, Reichsführer SS
- 1988: "Reichspogromnacht"
- What night was it?
Nov. 9, 1918: republic proclaimed in Berlin
Nov. 9, 1923: Nazi putsch attempt in Munich
Nov. 9, 1933-: anniversary commemorations
Actually started morning of Nov. 10, 1938
- Opportunistic use of event to solve diplomatic impasse
1938 Anschluss referendum
Step by Step Adolf Hitler ripped up the dictated Treaty of Versailles!
1933 Germany leaves the League of Nations created by Versailles
1934 Reconstruction of the Wehrmacht, the navy and the Luftwaffe begun!
1935 Saarland brought back home! Armed power of the Reich regained!
1936 Rheinland completely liberated!
1937 The myth of war guilt ceremoniously extinguished!
1938 Germany and Austria united in the Reich! Greater Germany achieved!
Therefore the whole of Germany will acknowledge their liberator on 10th April.Adolf
Hitler All say: YES!
- March: Polish ruling--no re-immigration after 10/31
- Apr. 26: Jews much register all assets over RM5000
- June 22: Synagogue in Munich destroyed (8/10 Nbg)
- July 6: Jews barred from business, medicine
- August 17: must adopt names "Israel" and "Sarah"
- August: Evian conference in France:
international community "doesn't have a Jewish problem and doesn't want one"
- Sept. 27: Jews barred from practicing law
- Sept. 20-29: Chamberlain 3x to Germany;
Munich conference/agreement: appeasement
Germany gets Sudetenland
- Oct. 5: Jewish passports recalled for "J" stamp
- Oct.: "Aktionen" in Vienna (7th-16th, 21st, 25th)
Events November 7-9
- Nov. 7:
9:30am: Grynszpan shoots diplomat in Paris
evening: violence in Kassel and Hannover
- Nov. 8: sporadic violence in Germany
- Nov. 9
7pm: commemorative dinner in Munich
9pm: news of diplomat's death to Hitler
10pm: Hitler leaves, Goebbels speaks
11pm-midnight: SA leaders make phone calls
midnight: Himmler swears in SS recruits
Events Nov. 10
- Nov 10:
- 12:30am: Graz (Austria) synagogue blown up
- 1:20am:Heydrich (SS): protect neighboring property
- 2-4am: first synagogue fires in Germany proper
- 9:15am-1:30pm: destruction of syn. in Vienna
- 7pm-10pm: first 3 major synagogue fires in Hamburg
Most destruction happened on this day
- Nov. 11: second wave of destruction; arrests
30,000 men and boys arrested; most released within 3 months, to emigrate
Events Nov. 12-Dec.
- Nov. 12: Goering presides over cabinet meeting 4 goals:
1. Complete process of "Aryanization"
2. Accelerate emigration
3. Complete isolation of Jews from populace
4. Abolish Jewish self-organization
- Dec. 6: Goering's address to Gauleiters
- Dec. 28: New rules announced by Goering
Causes of Kristallnacht?
prepared for web by H. Marcuse, Oct. 18, 2003
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