L 3: Adolf Hitler, 1889-1925
by Prof. H. Marcuse (homepage), UCSB, Sept.
10/3/05: this outline has been superceded by my 2005
Hitler lecture page.
Overarching question: How does history appear differently looking backward
from afterwards, than it did looking forward from beforehand? (example: Leni
Riefenstahl in the early 1930s)
Longer term question: What role do "great men" play in shaping the
course of history?
- Prelim: roll, enrollmt., books, reader, images
- Historical approach: chronological, controversial
(Riefenstahl then vs. now; aspects of Dachau)
- Hitler's life, 1889 - 1933 (†Apr. 29, 1945)
- Hitler's role in rise of Nazism, Holocaust
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
- born in German-Austrian border town
- his family life: mother and father (discussed based on family tree, below)
- 1905: left school at age 16, 2 years at home
- Oct. 1907 to Vienna. double trauma: no art school, mom †
Sold tourist postcards to make a living, Jewish dealer helped with sales.
How good an artist was he?
How much of an antisemite was he really?
- antisemitic milieu (source: Mein Kampf)
Mayor Lueger, Artamanen
- May 1913 move to Munich (draft Feb. 1914)
- Great War Aug. 1914: dispatch bearer
47 battles/4 years; twice injured, two medals
(2nd: captured an officer and 15 men)
Family Tree (after Ian Kershaw, Hubris, w/ Prof's
4th grade class in Leonding, 1899 (top center)
Hitler with WWI buddies and dog Foxl in 1915
Munich, August 2, 1914
declaration of war is announced, crowd cheers
ca. 1917: w/ Schmiedl
After the Great War
- sailors' mutiny, Kiel, Nov. 4, 1918
- Berlin revolution Nov. 6-9, 1918
- SPD vs. USPD:
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands=Sozis
- Workers' Councils ("soviets"; "Räte" [Judenrat])
- Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht (†1/1919)
turned USPD into Kommunistische PD, 12/18
- Hitler member of SPD council in April 1919
- Free Corps: demobilized veterans
Beginning of "Weimar Rep."
small city near Berlin where constitution was written
- Hitler asked to report on SPD councils,
by Anton Drexler, founder of Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (again: Hitler was a
- Membership card: no. 7 or no. 555?
Alternative possibilities and how history remains indeterminate.
- impressive speaking talent, joins DAP
- Versailles Treaty, June - Aug. 1919: no choice vs. "stab in the back"
- Feb. 1920: national and social DAP=NSDAP, "Nazis" (nickname like
meeting reparations payments
- 1923: printing money, runaway inflation, France and Belgium occupy industrial
- Nov. 1923: attempt to take over gov't in Bavaria, plan from there: Berlin
(coup d'etat, or Putsch)
Generals Ludendorf, Hindenburg, 1847-1934)
- Failed, 16 dead; trial: national celebrity
- Landsberg prison, Apr-Dec. 1924, wrote autobiography Mein Kampf (My
How Hitler fits in
- intentionalism: Hitler had a plan since the early 1920s
- The Wave, 46 mins
- 1961 biography of Hitler, 40 mins.
prepared for web by H. Marcuse, Sept. 30, 2003
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