2c, L 13: Political/Social/Cultural Revolution
Question: What causes BIG change to happen in history?
by Prof. H. Marcuse, May 13, 2003
Short answer: Lack of balance in multiple areas.
Announcements: EAP, midterm evaluations,
paper Thursday (CLAS), sections
- Dislocations in the early 20th century
- Portrayals of the Russian Revolution
Fall of the Qing
- Empress Cixi & Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901)
- secret organizations
- European-educated generation
- sons of scholar-gentry, merchants
- deeply hostile to involvement of imperialist powers
- 1911-12: boy-emperor deposed
World War I: Int'l Factor & World History
- US & Japan emerge as world powers
- created openings for intellectual resistance in Asia and Africa
- Women mobilized for war
(hemlines, smoking, dating, activism)
- Failed peace (Treaty of Versailles)
The Versailles Treaty and the World
- Germany: "Diktat" (dictated peace) as insult
- ambivalence of sides in and outcome of war
- Arab World: Brit and France reneged on wartime promises
- Asia: no protection for China against Japan
Ho Chi Minh: no audience with Wilson
- Mexico: Porfiro Diaz (1876-1910=80 years)
- India: 100,000s of soldiers and laborers in WW1
Source interpretation: Rabindranath Tagore (Bengali poet, one of first non-Europeans
to win Nobel Prize for literature)
"Has not this truth already come home to you now when this cruel war has
driven its claws into the vitals of Europe? When her hoard of wealth is bursting
into smoke and her humanity is shattered on her battlefields? You ask in amazement
what she has done to deserve this? The answer is, that the West has been systematically
petrifying her moral nature in order to lay a solid foundation for her gigantic
abstractions of efficiency. She has been all along starving the life of the
personal man into that of the professional."
Types of Change
- Political: institutions of government
- Social: groups within a society
- Cultural: way of life, traditions
Video Clips 1 & 2
What is left of the Russian Revolution?What influence does history have
- "Russia and the Romanovs"
Execution of the Czar & family in 1918
- "Soviet Past and Future"
Museum of the Nobility and Lenin Museum
- 1905: Russo-Japanese War [film clip 3]
- 1914: Great War
- 1917: February (March): "moderate" revolution (Kerensky, Duma, Prov. Gov't)
April: Lenin (through Germany)
- 1917: October (Nov.), Bolsheviks
"10 Days that shook the world"
- 1918: March, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- 1921: New Economic Policy
Film Clip 3
What causes people NOT to do what they are "supposed" (told) to?
- "Battleship Potemkin" (1925=20th anniv. of 1905 Russo-Japanese
War & failed uprising)
- Mutiny in Black Sea port of Odessa
- Massacre on the Odessa Steps
Film Clip 4
Again: what is left of this legacy?
- "October: 10 Days that Shook the World" (1928)
- 10th anniversary celebration
- Esther Shub's documentary footage of events
- John Reed's book
- technique of "intellectual montage" for point-of-view
by H. Marcuse on 5/13/03; outline prepared for web on 5/14/03.
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