2c, L 4:
Political/Social/Cultural Revolution: France, 1789-
by H. Marcuse, Apr. 10, 2003
- Theory: define "revolution"
- Data: events (what happened in France)
- Analysis/Conclusion: (why is that important)
music: songs of the French Revolution:
La Carmagnole, Cadet Rouselle, Ça ira, Marseillaise
- "complete overthrow; marked change"
- text p. 439 (Amer. rev.): "… an abrupt change in the
economic and social structures. But this was not the case in the new U.S.
The existing political, economic, and social circumstances of the citizenry,
whether white or black, were scarcely changed by independence. …
The real Amer. Rev. was slower to manifest itself and did so only by degrees
Theory (quotation L03)
Theory is not "gray."
It is the horizon of the possible, a roadmap that shows
new ways of doing old things, and new places to go.
Theory is freedom from the apparently unchangeable way
things are, which it unmasks as one possibility among hundreds.
Theory breaks the ruts of coincidence and gives us the
courage to undertake voyages of discovery. It makes every step we take an
act of free choice.
Theory does not have to be true to inspire great works--most
great discoveries were based on false hypotheses!
Theory: "the" French Revolution
- Who read textbook chapter 37?
Phases (p. 442)
- 1789-91: Constitutional Monarchy
- 1792: egalitarian democracy
"middle class" & intellectual revolution
masse: drafted army
- 1793-94: Jacobin Terror (5/93-7/94)
extremist revolution (Robespierre)
"After" the revolution
- 1795-99: Directory (5 members in 2 houses)
1798: Dir. sends Napoleon to Egypt--disaster
- 1799-1804: Consulate (3 consuls, Nap.=1st)
of 18 Brumaire (windy month=Nov. 99)
- 1804-1814: Empire (text p. 447)
- military innovations
- religion: 1801 Concordat: relationship Church & state
- new institutions: bureaucracy, education
- laws and judicial system (status of women, p. 449)
- economics: property redistribution
Napoleon Bonaparte, (1769-1821)
- Child of the revolution
young artillery captain
Oct.-Dec. 1793: took British fortress Toulon
promoted by P. Robespierre's bro. Augustin
dismissed after Thermidor (July 1794)
- Executor of the revolution
Oct. 1795 "whiff of grapeshot" saved Convention
- Gravedigger of the revolution
- First paper due next Tuesday
Questions on Equiano?
- CLAS workshops for 2nd paper assignment:
Monday, May 5, 3pm
Tuesday, May 6, 4pm
- Sign up for office hours next Tues. & Wed.
- Paper assignments and Plagiarism …
- Plagiarism is presenting someone else's work as your
own, or deliberately failing to credit or attribute the work of others on
whom you draw (including materials found on the web)
- It is a serious academic offense, punishable by dismissal
from the university. It hurts the one who commits it most of all, by cheating
them out of an education.
- In this course we will report offenses to the Dean of
Students for disciplinary action.
Origins of the Revolution
- text p. 442: "What started as a French aristocratic rebellion
against taxes …"
- financing US revolution 1778-83;
"French and Indian War" 1754-1763.
Also: Europe's reaction in 1792
- Estates General had 3 chambers:
300 Clergy, 300 Nobles, 600 Others
vote by house, or by head?
- Battle of the pamphlets
Battle of the pamphlets [we did not
get to this]
- 1789, Aug: French Nat. Assembly: Declaration of Rights
- 1790, : Richard Price, Sermon in Defense of the Revolution
- 1790, Nov: Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Rev. in France
- 1790, Dec: Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights
- 1791, Feb: Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights
- 1791, Mar: Thomas Paine, Rights of Man
- 1792, Jan: Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights
- 1792, Jan: Burke, Reply to my Critics
- 1792, Feb: Paine, Rights of Man II
back to top, to Hist 2c homepage
lecture by H. Marcuse on Apr. 10, 2003, outline prepared for web 4/14/03