Oct. 15, 1998
UCSB Hist 133C
GERMAN HISTORY SINCE 1945
Lecture 6: Establishing a "Democratic" State
in the West
- Administrative / Announcements / Preliminary
- Wed./Thu., Oct. 21/22: Classroom walkout to protest Prop.
209 (no ethnicity in admissions)
- Film "The Promise" will be shown twice: Tue Oct.
20, 7pm, HSSB 1173; Wed. HSSB 1174.
- Additional question on Böll?
- Ways of coming to terms with the past-select only certain
- Nazism as glory
- Nazism as selfishness, corruption, opportunism
- Nazism as crime, violence, destruction, inhumanity
- Nuremberg Trials
- Guest speaker UCSB graduate student Scopas Sekwat Poggo: Genocide/Atrocities
in the Southern Sudan
- Rich country with primarily Arab-Islamic North (20 mio. people),
African-Christian South (7 mio.)
- History: British policy to develop north first, give
independence, then develop South
- 1955: conflicts prior to independence from Britain (Jan. 1,
1956); British supported North
- 1963-72: Anya-Nya Southern guerrilla movement wages war against
- 1965 roundtable talks in Khartoum: unitary Islamic state or
- July 1965: massacres in JUBA, WAU and MALAKAL.
Reports to Amnesty Int'l, Int'l Jurists Org., Org.
of African Unity, All African Conf. of Churches
Media reporting on the massacres: The Vigilant (S. Sudan), times,
Telegraph, Observer, Guardian,
- What did WE know? What did "we" do?
- 1968 pact between South and North
- 1969-1985: General Gaffar Mohammed NIMEIRY takes over power
1969-71 tried to suppress S. rebels, used Soviet MIGs to bomb
- 1972-1983 peace agreement
1983 Colonel Dr. John GARANG de Mabior founds the Sudan People's
- 1985: civilian uprising overthrows Nimeiry; 1985-86 transitional
period to civilian rule
- 1986: Prime Min. Sadiq AL-MAHDI elected, civil war continues,
with intermittent peace talks
- 1989: al-Mahdi overthrown by General Omer HASSAN AL-BASHIR
in bloodless coup
period of extreme repression begins: Southern villages bombed
by Sudanese and Soviet Antonov planes; 1991 massacre of intellectuals
- "condemnation" by United Nations, United States
gov't, and human rights organizations
crisis of famine, disease, refugees
- News sources on the Sudan: New Sudan Online, http://members.aol.com/NewSudan/Online.html
(link on the course web page), also US newspapers, BBC Focus on
Africa, Voice of America
Definitions of Genocide
- United Nations Genocide Convention, 1951
(Art. 2): "
genocide means any of the following acts
committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national,
ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: a) killing members
of the group;
b) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated
to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
- Harff and Gurr, 1988: "genocides and
politicides are the promotion and execution of policies by a state
or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion
of a group.
The difference between genocides and politicides is in the characteristics
by which members of the group are identified by the state.
In genocides the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms
of their communal characteristics, i.e., ethnicity, religion or
In politicides the victim groups are defined primarily in terms
of their hierarchical position or political opposition to the
regime and dominant groups."
- Chalk and Jonassohn, 1990: "a form
of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority
intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it
are defined by the perpetrator."
- Charny, 1994: "the mass killing of
substantial numbers of human beings, when not in the course of
military forces of an avowed enemy, under conditions of the essential
defenselessness and helplessness of the victims."
- Katz, 1994: "the concept of genocide
applies only when there is an actualized intent, however
successfully carried out, to physically destroy an entire
group (as such a group is defined by the perpetrators)."