UCSB Hist 133C,
Uniting/Dividing Germany, 1952-61
by Prof. Marcuse, Jan. 30, 2004
- Finish discussion of Böll
- Unity or division?
- Possibilities of Uniting Germany
- Sealing the division of Germany
- Return Q4
Böll discussion, cont'd
- lambs vs. beasts (Büffel)
- Hugo and Marianne
- meaning of the title?
- Fulbrook p. 184f: "By the later 1950s, writers such as Heinrich B. were
beginning to pour scorn on what they saw as a bourgeois, self-satisfied materialism
which lived only for current comforts and suppressed the past; but rapid economic
Unite or divide I: Economics
- West: "social market economy" (Fulbr. 182f)
- neo- or Ordo-liberal
- Ludwig Erhard & "economic miracle"
- codetermination, reintegration of Nazi elite
- SPD's 1959 Godesberg program
- East: "planned economy"
- "5 year plans"
- consumption vs. reinvestment
Economics of Division
LPG=Landwirtschaftliche Productionsgenossenschaft, Agricultural Cooperative.
VE=volkseigen, "the people's own"
The East German economy was doing well towards the end of the 1950s, but when
the collectivization of agriculture was accelerated, things took a turn for
the worst. The popularity of the expropriations and redistribution in the late
1940s was mirrored by the unpopularity of collectivization.
Unite/divide II: Int'l
- Eisenhower & Nato
- European Defense Community (failed 1954: France)
- Stalin's overtures: March 10, 1952 "note"
- Plus two more unification offers: "making clear that the West Germans knew
what they were choosing…"
- Khrushchev's Nov. 27, 1958 ultimatum:
- Berlin a demilitarized "independent political unit"
- no more "right" of the Western Allies to be in Berlin
- "equal confederation" of both German states
Elites: Adenauer / Ulbricht
When Adenauer introduced his first cabinet to the Allied
High Commissioners in September 1949, a red carpet was placed for the
Allies to stand on, to symbolize the distance between the Allies and the
Germans. Adenauer, however, disregarded protocol and stepped onto a corner
of the carpet. I take this picture as a symbol of Adenauer's will to accommodate
the West, even at the expense of a united, neutral Germany.
Khrushchev, Ulbricht & Grotewohl in Berlin, 1958
Divide/Unite IV: Info
- Sources in reader:
- Khrushchev in Moscow, June 21, 1961: West (& JFK's) fault
- E. German decree, August 13, 1961: FRG continues revanchist Nazi policies
- US Secretary of State Rusk, Aug. 13, 1961: GDR denying rights to its
- Western allied Commandants, Aug, 15, 1961: USSR is violating agreements
Unite/Divide V: peOple
- Easterners were "voting with their feet"
- Statistics E-> W migration
1961: 155,000 Jan-July; 52,000 Aug-Dec.
(688 doctors, 296 dentists, 2648 engineers)
- Westerners stood by
- Eisenhower (Dulles): we won't start war
- Adenauer: in election, didn't go to Berlin right away
page by H. Marcuse, prepared for web 1/30/04, image added Feb. 1, 2004
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