UCSB Hist 133C Prof. Marcuse
German History since 1945 Jan. 18, 2000


  1. From Luther (or Fredrick the Great, Bismarck) to Hitler Germans are evil

  2. Lord Vansittart (1941): Roots of Trouble: The Black Record of Germany Past, Present and Future
    Hitler himself advocated this view!
    William Shirer, Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1959)
    justification for unconditional surrender & long occupation
  3. Marxist/modernization theory: "belated" unification and industrialization

  4. Hans-Ulrich Wehler (1973): "the defense of inherited ruling positions by pre-industrial elites against the onslaught of new forces"
    failed democratic revolution in 1848
    bourgeoisie coopted by unification of 1871
    failed revolution in 1918
    persistance of "traditional" elites (Prussian junkers, military, bureaucracy)
    need for institutional reform, as in 1949 founding
  5. a) German historians, 1945: Betriebsunfall="driving/factory accident"

  6. Germany highly cultured throughout its history
    a kind of temporary insanity: things went wrong 1931-33
    no need for a long occupation of defeated Germany
    b) Fritz Fischer (1962), Germany's Grasp for World Power in World War I
    primacy of domestic politics in starting WWI: distract the workers
    economic determinants of politics systemic reasons
    Punch, 1913: Once the land of poets, seekers and sages
    Who enchant us with their deathless pages
    Now the Prussian Junker, blind with fury
    Claims to be God's counsel, judge and jury.