- How did women mobilize to press for changes, and which issues did they want to change?
Answers to Q6: Facts about the Women's Movement in 19th C. Germany
- bourgeois vs. proletarian; which comes first, economics or gender?
- origins: 1848 vs. 1865
- education: 1850 Hamburg Educ. Assoc; 1866 Berlin W.A.Lette; 1888 Helene Lange's "Yellow Brochure"
- politics: right to vote, to hold office
- legal status: property ownership, divorce
- economics: right to work (which sectors?), equal wages, workplace protection
- reproduction: contraception, abortion (§218 of penal code), child care
- sexuality: fashion, prostitution, double standard, homosexuality (§175 of penal code)
- 1865: General German Women's Association (ADF) by Louise Otto-Peters & Auguste Schmidt (1833-1902)
- 1890: Helene Lange founds the General German Female Teachers' Association (ADLV)
- 1894: Union of German Women's Associations (Bund Deutscher Frauenvereine, BDF), joins "International Council of Women" (ICW)
- Louise Otto-Peters (1819-1895)
- liberal-bourgeois household in Saxony: father=judge, senator, son of doctor; mother=daughter of porcelain-painter
- orphaned at 16, 2 older sisters, fiancée died when 22 -> journalist and political poetess
- travels through rural Saxony, 1843 novel "Ludwig the Waiter," 1846 "Castle and Factory"
- Amalia Struve (1824-1862)
- 1845: married Gustav von Struve (Baden radical democrat)
- 1848-49: 205 days in Freiburg tower prison; Rastatt
- 1852: to US, wrote 9 novels about suffrage and women's education
- 1862: died after birth of 3rd daughter (husband fought in Civil War, 1866 amnestied and to Vienna)
- Helene Lange (1848-1930)
- 1864: orphaned; 1866 studies in Alsace; 1867 governess
- 1872: private tutor in Berlin, then teacher, then teacher of teachers
- 1887: "Yellow brochure"
- 1893: ADF chair; founded magazine "Die Frau" (the woman)
- Gertrud Bäumer (1873-1954)
- 1898: lives and works with Lange
- 1914: organizes women in support of Great War
- 1918: German Democratic Party; 1920-1930 Reichstag
- FKK: Free Body Culture (Freikörperkultur--Naturists)
1795: George Lichtenberg writes in "Das Luftbad" (the air-bath) that Lord Monboddo swims naked
1888: painter Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach preaches "Sun-Humanity" in Bavaria
1893: Natural Healing Assoc. founded in Essen (registered 1905; today "Light & Air Athletic Assoc.")
1902: Journal "Die Schönheit" (Beauty) begins publication in Germany
1903: Free-Light Park opened near Lübeck; Heinrich Pudor publishes Nacktcultur